Background of 1709/1710 Group
Among the first Dutch and Swedes that settled New York and Delaware in the 17th century were several Germans. Also during the late 17th century many of the first Germans to Germantown, Pennsylvania came through the port of New York and traveled overland 2-3 days to get to Pennsylvania.
The first large group of Germans to North America after the initial Germantown colony was the large exodus of Germans in 1709-1710 to New York. These emigrants began arriving in England in May 1709. Conditions in London and Rotterdam were not good because of the large numbers of emigrants that had to be provided for. Some returned to their homes (including all the Catholics), went on to other parts of England or Ireland (821 families, see, The Palatine Families of Ireland), North Carolina (840 families, 650 going to the New Bern settlement), and West Indies. Of the 13,000 Germans who reached London in 1709, about a quarter of these continued on to New York.
Most of the Palatines for New York began boarding ships in Dec 1709, but did not leave England until April 1710. About 3,100 emigrants sailed on 11 ships to New York and were accompanied by the Governor-Elect Hunter. About 470 Germans perished on the voyage and another 250 after landing. An estimated 2,500 disease-laden emigrants had to be provided for in New York.
In 1723, 60 families from the Schoharie Valley and surrounding regions of New York, most descendants of the 1710 group, emigrated to the southwest to Tulpehocken, Pennsylvania. A second group joined them in 1729 and founded Womelsdorf.
The families that settled in New York in 1710 have been the focus of a genealogical study of Henry Z Jones over the space of many years and his findings have been published in several volumes (the first volumes published in 1985 include the origin of 500 of the 847 individuals/families):
- The Palatine Families of New York, 1710. Universal City, CA: Henry Z Jones, Jr., 1985. 2 vols.
- More Palatine Families: Some Immigrants to the Middle Colonies 1717-1776 and their European Origins Plus New Discoveries on German Families Who Arrived in Colonial New York in 1710. Universal City, CA: Henry Z Jones, Jr., 1991.
- Even More Palatine Families: 18th Century Immigrants to the American Colonies and Their German, Swiss, and Austrian Origins. Rockport, Maine: Picton Press, 2002. 3 vols. (Co-author Lewis Bunker Rohrbach. This book includes Rotterdam Sailing Lists of 1709, London arrival lists, Hunter NY Subsistence Lists and many other sources in their original form, which have never been previously published.)
Reconstructed Ship Lists
From experience in the other colonies, such as Nova Scotia, the earliest subsistence lists (especially when unindexed) were taken directly from the passenger lists and emigrants were listed in the same order. With this in mind the Hunter Subsistence Lists have been used to compile these reconstructed passenger lists. Since there were 847 individuals/families in these lists and 11 ships, that would mean there were about 77 of these names per ship. Some ships probably had more and some less, due to sicknesses and deaths on board.
The names of the 11 ships, captains, date of arrival, and listmaster was apparently discovered by Philip Otterness at the end of the Albany Deed Book #13 (1736-1739). The listmaster was apparently a member of the German passengers on the ship who was assigned to keep up the ship list. This list was apparently published in the 3rd Printing of Palatine Families of New York. If anyone has a copy of this book or can make a copy of the original manuscript, I would very much like to add it here. From notations in Even More Palatine Families, I have put together the following incomplete list:
|13 Jun 1710||Lyon of Keith||Alexander Stevenson||Hans Peter Kneskern (389)|
|14 Jun 1710||Fame||Walter Houxton||Johann Adolph Arthopoeus (5)|
|14 Jun 1710||Baltimore||Bartholomew Whitehorne||Johann Philipp Fuchs (219)|
|14 Jun 1710||Tower Frigate||Edward Bennett||Johann Quirinus Neythäber (552)|
|16 Jun 1710||Hartwell||Jeremiah Turner||Christian Wormbs (831)|
|16 Jun 1710||James & Elizabeth||Henry Gravener||Johann Christian Gerlach (231)|
|16 Jun 1710||Mary||Thomas Richardson||Johann Christoph Kurtz (422)|
|24 Jun 1710||Sarah||Andrew Elston||(?Joh. Georg) Schmidt (662)|
There is evidence from other subsistence lists that the emigrants in the earliest lists were often listed in the same order as they were on the passenger lists (e.g. Nova Scotia & New England). This order also often gives clues of the origins of the passengers as passengers from the same parts of Germany may have been listed together. Since the emigrants had traveled on ships from Holland to London, where they waited some time, the order of emigrants may have been more scrambled by the time they left England for New York from their original emigration groups. On the other hand, a careful studying the Hunter lists leads to the idea that the names are listed roughly chronologically in the order of their arrival at New York. Yet it is hoped that by splitting up the reconstructed passenger lists this way it will not only reflect a pretty good guess of passengers who may have traveled together but also provide additional clues for place of origin for those who have not yet been identified.
Trying to keep the names of emigrants enlisted in the various subsistence lists together on the same ship, the names were divided up with between 60-90 names on each. It is expected that division of immigrants into ships will be adjusted and other corrections will be made as all the rest of the ship lists are compiled.
There are certainly plenty of guess work and mistakes or omissions in these reconstructed lists, however they offer a new analysis tool and can be corrected as time goes on. If you have thoughts or corrections, please submit them to this site. With time there may be additional clues to help revise these lists more accurately.
It is interesting that the abovementioned list masters are listed fairly evenly spaced throughout the Hunter subsistence lists, also giving credence to the idea that these lists were based on originally passenger lists. With this in mind the name of the ship most likely corresponding to the reconstructed list and date of arrival are added in parenthesis below. The number on the last Hunter list which were used in Hank Jones' books are used as reference numbers on these lists.
|#Names||Reconstructed (Ship) List||Arrival in New York by|
|63||First (Lyon of Keith)||30 Jun 1710 (13 Jun 1710)|
|62||Second||30 Jun 1710|
|75||Third (Fame)||1 Jul 1710 (14 Jun 1710)|
|76||Fourth (Baltimore)||1 Jul 1710 (14 Jun 1710)|
|76||Fifth (Hartwell)||1 Jul 1710 (16 Jun 1710)|
|60||Sixth (James & Elizabeth)||4 Jul 1710 (16 Jun 1710)|
|62||Seventh (Tower Frigate)||4 Jul 1710 (14 Jun 1710)|
|63||Eighth||4 Jul 1710|
|(127)||Ninth (?Mary)||4 Aug 1710 (16 Jun 1710)|
|(78)||Tenth (Sarah)||4 Oct 1710 (24 Jun 1710)|
|(78)||Eleventh||4 Oct 1710|
New York Passenger Lists 1717-1776
Besides the original 11 ships, there were other ships that brought Germans to New York and New Jersey from 1717-1776. The ships and immigrants that came during this time period need to be identified and added to this site. Those with any clues or information about the ships and possible lists that can be used as a basis for the reconstruction of these passenger lists are welcome to give their feedback. No ship lists have been reconstructed yet for New York, but if/when they are they will be linked to this page.
Later ships have yet to be identified and the following list will need a lot of work, but represents a start:
|Ship Name||Date of Arrival|
|Capt. Godfrey's Ship||Sep 1717|
|(Pink from Harwich)||29 Oct 1722|
|2 Ships: Strange & Johanna||11 Sep 1726|